Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences

A review on osteoporosis and its diagnosis

(2016) A review on osteoporosis and its diagnosis. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences.


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Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease that is related to decreased bone mass and microscopic changes in bone tissue that comes with with high fragility and fracture risk. There are no methods for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, thus it is diagnosed based on the bone mineral density, BMD. According to a definition by WHO, osteoporosis is diagnosed by comparing the mean BMD of the population of the same gender to one's BMD. Routine laboratory evaluation such as cell blood count, calcium levels in serum and 24-hour urine and kidney and liver functional tests should be performed. Marking the skeleton with tetracycline makes us able to determine the regeneration level and also evaluate other bone metabolic diseases. Bone biopsy is mostly replaced with current usage of BMD tests, with evaluating hormone and other biochemical parameters of bone regeneration. Factors except BMD involved in fracture risk evaluation are aging, prior fracture, falling down, glucocorticoid administration, hip fracture family history and current smoking. Having a T-score equal or below -2/5 means osteoporosis detection. A T-score between -1 to -2/5 categorizes as low bone mass (osteopenia) while -1 or higher is normal. Fracture prevalence in people with BMD T-score in osteopenia range is more than people with a T-score in osteoporotic range. In 2008, World Health Organization developed a tool called FRAX to estimate the fracture risk which expresses the probability of hip or vertebra fracture in the next 10 years. This tool was approved in 11 cohorts and was tested on more than a million patients. According to the economic conditions of different countries, FRAX could be used to determine whether BMD is necessary to use and also to start the treatment. In countries with limited access to DXA, FRAX could be used. In FRAX algorithm, the probability of fracture occurrence (including hip fracture and major fracture risk) in the next ten years is estimated based on age, sex, weight, height, history of previous fracture, smoking, corticosteroid administration, rheumatism history, secondary osteoporosis, the level of alcohol consumption and patient's T-score. If Major Fracture Risk is higher than 20 and/or Hip Fracture is higher than 4, the person categorizes in high risk group. This study was conducted to review osteoporosis, its routine evaluation and diagnosing and to review literature related to it.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 0
Keywords: calcium; vitamin D, alcoholism; Article; body mass; bone biopsy; bone densitometry; bone density; bone mass; bone regeneration; clinical evaluation; human; lifestyle modification; medical history; menopause; osteolysis; osteoporosis; risk assessment; smoking; spine fracture; vitamin supplementation
Subjects: QZ Pathology > QZ 140-180 Pathologic Processes
WE Musculoskeletal System > WE 168-190 Orthopedic Procedures
Divisions: Research Vice-Chancellor Department > Student Research Committee
Depositing User: مهندس هدی فهیم پور

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